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APA 7th Referencing

American Psychological Association, 7th edition

APA 7th basics

Overview of style

By following APA 7th referencing, you ensure appropriate credit is given to the work of others, formatted consistently and clearly.

There are two steps to referencing:

 In-text citations: Briefly pinpoint the source of paraphrased or quoted material within the body of your assignment.

 Reference list: Details in full the sources referred to in-text, placed on a separate page at the end of your assignment. 

 For complete citation and reference formats, please refer to the appropriate resource type tabs within this guide.

Citation formats

  Style rule Example
In-text citations

1 - 2 authors list all authors.

3 or more authors list first author followed by et al.

(Meeking & Kovaci, 2024).

(Boxall et al., 2020).

Secondary source citations

Include year of both the original author (if known) and source.

(Mindum, 2016, as cited in Low et al., 2021).


Reference formats

You must reference all materials according to the specific source type (e.g. book, article, webpage etc.). Each will differ slightly with its own requirements, formats and rules.

Refer to the following quick guide for a summary of referencing formats/examples of common source types.


APA 7th quick guide



  Style rule Example
Reference list

See formatting reference list tab for detailed guidance.

Overview of formatting:

  • Placed at the end of your document on a separate page
  • Includes all published sources cited in the body of your work
    (e.g. books, articles, images etc.)
  • Alphabetically ordered according to author surname
  • Each reference has a hanging indent

Sample reference list

Author elements
  Style rule Example
1-20 authors

List all authors in reference.

Robbins, S., Judge, T., Edwards, M., Saniford, P., Fitzgerald, M., & Hunt J. (2020). Organisational behaviour (9th ed.). Pearson Education.

21 or more authors

Include first 19 authors, an ellipsis (...), and then the final name.

Wiskunde, B., Arslan, M., Fischer, P., Nowak, L., Van den Berg, O., Coetzee, L., Juárez, U., Riyaziyyat, E., Wang, C., Zhang, I., Li, P., Yang, R., Kumar, B., Xu, A., Martinez, R., McIntosh, V., Ibáñez, L. M., Mäkinen, G., Virtanen, E., . . . Kovács, A. (2019). Indie pop rocks mathematics: Twenty One Pilots, Nicolas Bourbaki, and the empty set. Journal of Improbable Mathematics27(1), 1935–1968. 

Government agency as author

When numerous layers of government agencies are listed as the author of a work, use the most specific agency as the author in the reference. The names of parent agencies appear after the title as the publisher.

Write government agency names out in full, do not abbreviate.

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2017). 2017 foreign policy white paper [White paper]. Australian Government.

Fair Work Commission. (2020, December 31). Disputes at work: Anti-bullying. Commonwealth of Australia.

Nursing and Midwifery Board. (2021). COVID-19 guidance for nurses and midwives. Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency.

Publisher elements
  Style rule Example
Organisation/Corporate author name Entire name is capitalised and written out in full, do not abbreviate.

World Health Organization

Organisation/Corporate author same as publisher Do not repeat, leave publisher name blank.

Cancer Council. (n.d.). Facts and figures: Cancer statistics in Australia.

  Style rule Example

Format as per hyperlink default:

  • https:// or http://
  • Blue text
  • Underlined



Format as