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APA 7th Referencing

American Psychological Association, 7th edition

Reference lists and bibliographies

What's the difference?

Reference list: A list of resources that you have cited in the assignment.

Bibliography: A list of resources that you have read, both cited and not cited, in your assignment.

 APA style usually requires a reference list.

For information on how to specifically reference a source, refer to the appropriate source type tabs in this guide.

Reference list formats


Armstrong, G. (2017). Principles of marketing (7th ed.). Pearson.

Berman, A., Snyder, S. J., Levett-Jones, T., Dwyer, T., Hales, M., Harvey, N., Moxham, L., Langtree, T., Parker, B., Reid-Searl, K., & Stanley, D. (2018). Kozier and Erb's fundamentals of nursing (4th Australian ed.). Pearson.

Cambridge University. (n.d.). Constitution. In Cambridge dictionary. Retrieved May 20, 2020, from

Cancer Council. (n.d.). Facts and figures: Cancer statistics in Australia.

Convention on the Rights of the Child, opened for signature 20 November 1989, 1577 UNTS 3 (entered into force 2 September 1990)

Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. (2017). 2017 foreign policy white paper [White paper]. Australian Government.

Disability Discrimination Act 1992 (Cth)

Fair Work Commission. (2020, December 31). Disputes at work: Anti-bullying. Commonwealth of Australia.

Felisitas, C., Molline, M., & Clotildah, K. (2012). The hospitality and tourism honours degree programme: Stakeholders' perceptions on competencies developed. Journal of Hospitality Management and Tourism, 3(1), 12-22.

Fernández-Castillo, R.-J., Gil-García, E., Vázquez-Santiago, M.-S., & Barrientos-Trigo, S. (2020). Chronic non-cancer pain management by nurses in specialist pain clinics. British Journal of Nursing, 29(16), 954-959.

Flynn, M., & Mercer, D. (Eds.). (2018). Oxford handbook of adult nursing (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press.

Gholston, K., Kuofie, M., & Hakim, A. C. (2016). Social media for marketing by small businesses. Journal of Marketing and Management, 7(1), 24-39.

Hopkin, P. (2018). Fundamentals of risk management: Understanding, evaluating, and implementing effective risk management (5th ed.). Kogan Page.

Juvé‐Udina, M., Pérez, E., Padrés, N., Samartino, M., García, M., Creus, M., Battlori, N., & Calvo, C. (2014). Basic nursing care: Retrospective evaluation of communication and psychosocial interventions documented by nurses in the acute care setting. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 46(1), 65-72.

Kim, T., Yoo, J. J., Lee, G., & Kim, J. (2012). Emotional intelligence and emotional labour acting strategies among frontline hotel  employees. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 24(7), 1029-46.

Kratchovil, M. (Director). (2012). Understanding aged care [Video]. ClickView. 

López-Mejías, R., Remuzgo-Martínez, S., Genre, F., Pulito-Cueto, V., Rozas, S., Llorca, J., Fernández, D. I., Cuesta, V., Ortego-Centeno, N., Gómez, N. P., Mera-Varela, A., Martínez-Barrio, J., López-Longo, F. J., Mijares, V., Lera-Gómez, L., Usetti, M. P., Laporta, R., Pérez, V., Gafas, A. P., ... González-Gay, M. A. (2020). Influence of MUC5B gene on antisynthetase syndrome. Scientific reports, 10(1), 1415.

Marshall, R. (Director). (2005). Memoirs of a geisha [Film]. Columbia Pictures.

McCubbin, J. (2015). Police look to the future to stop crime. Police Life, Spring, 22-23.

McKell v The Queen [2019] HCA 5

Norwood. (2012). Westringia Shirley Pink [Plant label]. Bush Magik.

Nursing and Midwifery Board. (2021). Audit.  Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency.

Reyes, S. D., & Ebbeck, M. (2010). Children redefine learning in science through play. In M. Ebbeck & M. Waniganayake (Eds.), Play in early childhood education: Learning in diverse contexts (pp. 197-211). Oxford University Press.

Robbins, S., Judge, T., Edwards, M., Saniford, P., Fitzgerald, M., & Hunt J. (2020). Organisational behaviour (9th ed.). Pearson.

Samson, D., & Daft, R. L. (2015a). Fundamentals of management (5th Asia-Pacific ed.). Cengage.

Samson, D., & Daft, R. L. (2015b). Management (5th Asia-Pacific ed.). Cengage.

Smith, G. (2020). Emotive conversing realities [PowerPoint slides]. Holmesglen Brightspace.

Standards Australia. (2018). Scaffold decking components (AS/NZS Standard No. 1577:2018). 

Teegardin, K. (2009). Balancing the account by hand [Photograph]. Flickr.

Vernon, K., Thorsborne, M., Abramson, A., Burton, A., Casey, M., George, G., Gribben, K., Hansberry, W., Hutchison, K., & Lennox, J. (2014). Psychology of emotion in restorative practice. Jessica Kingsley.

World Health Organization [@WHO]. (2015, January 6). No #Ebola cases detected in #Iraq [Tweet]. Twitter.

General features and format

  • Place reference list at the end of assignment on a separate page.
  • Include title "References" at the top of page. This must be formatted as bold text and centre aligned.

  • References are to be spaced as specified in your assessment task outline (e.g. 1.5 line spacing).*
    * If unspecified, you may use default double line spacing.

  • Hanging indent: All lines, except for the first one in each reference, are indented about 1.27 cm.
    For instructions on how to add a hanging indent see formatting hanging indent in Word.

  • All sources cited in-text must be included in the reference list with the exception of unpublished works (resources not accessible via published sources, e.g. letters, interviews, etc.).
  • Arrange list alphabetically according to author surname.
  • Where multiple references have same author but different year, order them oldest to newest.
    Bridgeman, T. (2019). Research as skills for life (3rd ed.). Munchkin Books. 
    Bridgeman, T. (2020). Research skills for study. Holman Publishing.
  • Where multiple reference have same author and year, order them alphabetically according to title and add a letter to differentiate them.
    Bridgeman, T. (2019a). Importance of research: Skills for success. Holman Publishing.
    Bridgeman, T. (2019b). Research as skills for life (3rd ed.). Munchkin Books. 
  • The first letter of the first word of a sub heading after a colon is capitalised. E.g. Contemporary strategic management: Concepts and cases.
  • Titles are generally italicised and have minimal capitalisation. Periodical titles (e.g. journals, magazines and newspapers) have maximum capitalisation. e.g. Book title is Principles of marketing, whereas periodical title is Police Life.
  • Authors are listed in the order that they are given in the resource.

  • If there is no author, then start reference with title of source.

URLs and DOIs


Author formats/requirements

1 - 20 authors/editors

All authors/editors are listed.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C.

Editor, A. A., Editor, B. B., & Editor, C. C. (Eds.).

21 or more authors/editors

List first 19 authors/editors, then ... followed by last name:

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., Author C. C., Author, D. D., Author, E. E., Author, F. F., Author, G. G., Author, H. H., Author, I. I., Author, J. J., Author, K. K., Author, L. L., Author, M. M., Author, N. N., Author, O. O., Author, P. P., Author, Q. Q., Author, R. R., Author, S. S., ... Author, Z. Z.

Organisation/Corporate author

Organisation's name must be written out in full.

e.g. CSIRO is written as Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation.

Hyphenated names

Authors/Editors with a hyphenated first name should have a hyphen added in between their initials with no space.

Author, A.-A.

Capitalisation and spelling

Use exact capitalisation and spelling of author names as they appear in the source. This includes accented letters and characters, hyphens and lower case spelling.

e.g. van der Waal, P. N., Santos-García, S., & Velasco Rodríguez, M. L.



APA style uses specific punctuation, capitalisation, abbreviations and formatting rules. Explanation of punctuation is included throughout this guide. This includes formatting quotes, citations and references. It is important that you are consistent and accurate with punctuation to ensure you reference correctly.  


Common abbreviations

Terms commonly used in references are shortened. Some are also used for date and page information for in-text citations.

ca. circa
& and
(ed.). edition
(2nd ed.). second edition
(Rev. ed.). revised edition
(Ed.)./(Eds.). editor/editors
Trans. translator(s)
et al. and others
(n.d.). no date
p./pp. page/pages
para. paragraph
(Tech.) technical report
Vol./Vols. volume/volumes


Additional title notations

Additional title information can be included immediately after the title in square brackets if the information will assist in identification and retrieval of the work. Capitalise the first letter. Below are some examples:

[Audio podcast]
[Fact sheet]
[Lecture notes]
[PowerPoint slides]

Missing element
Reference list
In-text citation
Provide the title, date and source. Title. (Date). Source.

(Title, Year)

Title (Year)

Provide the author, write "n.d." for "no date," and then provide the title and source. Author. (n.d.). Title. Source

(Author, n.d.)

Author (n.d.)

Provide the author and date, describe the work in square brackets, and then provide the source. Author. (Date). [Description of work]. Source.

(Author, Year)

Author (Year)

Author and date
Provide the title, write "n.d." for "no date," and then provide the source.  Title. (n.d.). Source.

(Title, n.d.)

Title (n.d.)

Author and title
Describe the work in square brackets, and then provide the date and source. [Description of work]. (Date). Source.

([Description of work], Year)

[Description of work] (Year)

Date and title
Provide the author, write "n.d." for "no date," describe the work in square brackets, and then provide the source. Author. (n.d.). [Description of work]. Source.

(Author, n.d.)

Author (n.d.)

Author, date, and title
Describe the work in square brackets, write "n.d." for "no date," and then provide the source.  [Description of work]. (n.d.). Source.

([Description of work], n.d.)

[Description of work] (n.d.)

Cite as a personal communication (see: Personal Communications tab) or find another work to cite No reference list entry (C. C. Communicator, personal communication, Month Day, Year)

Further information on reference lists