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APA 7th Referencing Guide

American Psychological Association, 7th edition

Images and artworks overview

These guidelines have been adapted and modified from the APA 7th Manual to suit the needs of Holmesglen students.

 

What images can I use?

Students are encouraged to use Creative Commons and/or Public Domain images. Check the list provided below.

Copyright images require explicit permission from the copyright holder. If you are uncertain whether or not an image is protected under copyright, please consult either a librarian or a Learning Skills teacher. 

Images/Artworks format

Finding images

The following links provide free images that you can use in your work. 

Please ensure that you continue to cite and reference any images you use (follow the instructions in the tabs above).

 

Further resources

Images from websites

 

Copyright-free images (e.g. Pixabay, Unsplash)

Copyright free images which state no attribution required, are safe to use without asking for permission. However, you are still required to provide captions and references to ensure that the author(s) can be easily identified, and the image can be easily traced back to its original source.

Good sources of copyright-free images include:

  Format Example
Caption

Title (Author, Year)

image of a hot air balloon

Hot air balloon (Riether, 2020)

In-text citation

... (Author, Year)

OR

Author (Year) ...

... as seen in the photograph (Riether, 2020).

OR

Riether (2020) Hot air balloon captures ...

Reference

Author, A.A. (Year, Month Day uploaded). Title [Description].  Publisher. https://xxxxx

Riether, F. (2020, July 10). Hot air balloon [Photograph]. Pixabay. https://pixabay.com/photos/hot-air-balloon-captive-balloon-5390487

Creative Commons images

Creative Commons is a licensing system that permits you to reuse an image in accordance with the terms of its agreement.

Visit the Smartcopying webpage to find CC licensed images.

  Format Example
Caption

Title (Author, Year, CC BY 2.0)

image from night noodle market in Melbourne

Night Noodle Market in Melbourne (Phutully, 2013, CC BY 2.0)

In-text citation

(Author, Year)

OR

Author (Year)

... as seen in the palm trees (Phutully, 2013).  

OR

Phutully, (2013) Night Noodle Market in Melbourne captures ...

Reference

Author, A.A. (Year). Title [Description]. Publisher. https://xxxxx

Phutully, C. (2013). Night Noodle Market in Melbourne [Photograph]. Wikimedia. https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Night_Noodles_Market_(Melbourne)_(11082886276).jpg

Copyrighted images

Only use copyrighted images if you have explicit written permission from the copyright holder.

Include the copyright symbol © in front of the year. 

  Format Example
Caption

Title (Author, © Year)

image of fireworks at Treasury Gardens

Fireworks at Treasury Gardens (Smith, © 2019)

In-text citation

(Author, Year) 

OR

Author (Year)

... highlighted in Fireworks at Treasury Gardens (Smith, 2019).  

OR

Smith (2019) utilises ...   

Reference

Author, A.A. (Year). Title [Description]. Publisher. https://xxxxx

Fireworks at Treasury Gardens [Photograph]. Fireworks Smith. http://fireworks.smith.au

Images from databases

 

Caption

Format Example

Title (Author, © Year)

image of water lilies at Melbourne Royal Botanic Gardens

Water lilies at the Melbourne Royal Botanic Gardens (Andrews, © 2019)

 

In-text citation

Format Example

... (Author, Year)

OR

Author (Year) ...

... is evoked by the colours (Andrews, 2019).

OR

Andrews (2019) evokes ...

 

Reference

Format Example

Author, A.A. (Year). Title [Description]. Publisher.

Andrews, J. (2019). Water lilies at the Melbourne Royal Botanic Gardens [Photograph]. Images R Us.

Note:
  • Publisher is the name of the database.

Images from books

 

Caption

Provide the copyright symbol in front of the year, to ensure you are recognising the copyright holder.  

Copyright information usually can be found on the Publications page of the book.

Provide page numbers in both the caption and in-text citation

Format Example

Title (Author, © Year, p. xx)

 

image of new sign for Holmesglen's Chadstone Campus

New sign for Chadstone campus, 1992 (Holmesglen Institute of TAFE, © 2002, p. 119)

 

 

In-text citation

Format Example

(Author, Year)

OR

Author (Year) 

... is depicted (Holmesglen Institute of TAFE, 2002, p. 119).

OR

Holmesglen Institute of TAFE (2009) depicts ... (p. 119).

 

Reference

Format Example
Author, A.A. (Year of book's publication). Title of image [Description]. In A. Author. Title of work (pp. x). Publisher.

 

Holmesglen Institute of TAFE. (2002). New sign for Chadstone campus, 1992 [Photograph]. In Holmesglen Institute of TAFE. Building the future: A history of Holmesglen Institute (p. 119). 

 

Note:
  • In A. Author. Mention the author of the book if it is different from the author of the artwork/image. 
  • Leave out the Publisher if it is the same as the Author. 

Images from journals and newspapers

 

Caption

Place the copyright symbol in front of the year, to ensure you are recognising the copyright holder.

Provide page numbers in both the caption and in-text citation

Format Example

Title (Author, © Year, p. xx)

image of a cafe latte

Cafe latte served in a glass (Marsh & deBeauvoir, © 2019, p. 5)

 

In-text citation

Format Example

(Author, Year)

OR

Author (Year)

... is highlighted (Marsh & de Beauvoir, 2019, p. 5).

OR

Marsh and de Beauvoir (2019) visually highlight ... (p. 5).

 

Reference

  Format Example

Journal from a database

Where possible provide the DOI. If DOI is unavailable, provide URL of the journal's homepage. 

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. Year. Title of image [Description]. In Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume (Issue), Page-Page. https://doi.org/xx.xxx

Marsh, A., & de Beauvoir, X. (2019). Cafe latte served in a glass [Photograph]. In The effect of Melbourne's cafe culture on international visitors. Journal of the Caffeine Commons, 9(21), 1-15. https://doi.org/00.0000

 

Newspaper article

Even if retrieving an article from a database, give the newspaper homepage URL.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of image [Description] In Title of article. Title of Newspaperhttps://xxxxx

Crosling, D. (2013). Rob Farquharson arrives at the Supreme court [Photograph]. In Boys in dam dad Robert Farquharson loses High Court bid. The Australianhttps://www.theaustralian.com.au/

 

Images without titles, authors or dates

Create your own short, descriptive title based on the image. 

When the year cannot be located, use (n.d.) instead. 

 

Caption

Format Example

(Descriptive title, Year)

image of St. Kilda pier

(St. Kilda pier, n.d.)

 

In-text citation 

Format Example

(Description of image, Year)

OR

Description of image (Year) 

... is shown in the image (St. Kilda pier, n.d.). 

OR

In the image St. Kilda pier (n.d.) ...

 

Reference

Format Example

Descriptive title [Description]. (Year). https://xxxxx

St. Kilda pier [Photograph]. (n.d.). https://www.NotaRealUrl.co

Screenshots

When using Google screenshots, please do not alter them (i.e. changing the colour or design of the page, or editing the information provided). 

Find out more information about Google's policy in regards to screenshot use

Find out about screenshot use of Microsoft products (e.g. MS Word). 

 

Format

Format Example

Title (Author, © Year)

screenshot of a Google map of Holmesglen Chadstone campus

Holmesglen Chadstone campus (Google Maps, 2019)

 

 

 

In-text citation

Format Example

... (Author, Year)

... is shown (Google Maps, 2019). 

 

Reference

Format Example

Author, A.A. (Year). Title [Description]. https://xxxxx

Google Maps. (2019). Holmesglen Chadstone campus [Screenshot]. https://www.google.com.au/maps/

Referencing your own images

The format for citing your own images depends on whether or not the image is unpublished or published. 
 

Unpublished image

Published image

Includes images published on a blog or other forms of social media. 

Caption

image of Korean food in a restaurant

Korean dining (Smith, personal communications, 2019)

Caption

image of two coffees

Two coffees (Smith, © 2019)

Reference

If the image is unpublished, you do not need to include a reference. (See: Personal communications tab)

Reference

As the image is published, include it in the reference list.

Reference for an image from social media (e.g. blog, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram)

Format: Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title [Photograph or Image]. Platform Name. https://xxxxx

Example: Smith, J. (2019, September 3). Two coffees [Photograph]. Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/cafelation/

Using MS Office images/clipart

MS Word provides a tool to find images through the web, but they do not own any of the images found. Ensure you always check the source of the image to reference it correctly. If in doubt, please ask a librarian or a Learning Skills teacher. 

 

Alternative sources of images

It is always best to search for copyright free images through specific image search sites, where the image source/creator and the terms of use are clearly noted. The finding images tab is your best starting point.