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APA 7th Referencing

American Psychological Association, 7th edition

Social media, apps, games and AI format

Social Media

 Please check with your teacher whether social media and apps are considered acceptable sources to cite or not.

Social media posts may contain audiovisual materials. 

References may include:

  • The text of a post up to the first 20 words
  • A description of the audiovisuals in square brackets. eg. [Image], [Infographic], [Thumbnail with link attached]
  • Hashtags and links
  • Emoji names in square brackets (if emoji cannot be reproduced). Full list of emojis with names.

Note about Authors:

Twitter and Instagram

  •   Author, A. A. [@username].
  •   Name of Group [@username]

Facebook and others

  • Author, A. A.
  • Name of Group.
  • Name of Group [Username].
  • Username].


Reference elements


Screenshot of an annotated social medial reference


In-text citation

  Format Example

(Author, Year)


Author (Year)

Despite rumours by media agencies, it has been confirmed that Ebola has not spread to Iraq (World Health Organization [WHO], 2015).


World Health Organization [WHO] (2015) confirmed in a tweet that the Ebola virus had not spread to Iraq despite previous suspicions. 


"..."(Author, Year)


Author (Year) "..."

the post describes how the software "automates all steps" (Schultz, 2017)


Schultz (2017) explains that the General Ledger reconciliation Software  "automates all steps" 

  • Because the World Health Organization is known in its abbreviated form, the  2nd citation onwards should be shortened to WHO (2015) or (WHO, 2015). See in-text citation formats for more information.


  Format Example
Blog post

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Post title. Blog Title. https://xxxxx

Shultz, M. (2017, December 8). What is general ledger reconciliation?. Blackline Magazine.

Blog post - reply

Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Comment title [Comment on the blog post "Post title"]. Blog Titlehttps://xxxxx

joachimr. (2019, November 19). We are relying on APA as our university style format - the university is located in Germany (Kassel). So I [Comment on the blog post “The transition to seventh edition APA Style”]. APA Style.

Note: Cite the author of the comment, provide comment title or then write “Comment on the blog post” and full title of post on which the comment appeared (in quotation marks and sentence case, enclosed within square brackets). Include URL of comment if possible.

Facebook page Author. (n.d.). Title of page [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://xxxxx National Park Service. (n.d.). Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved January 12, 2020, from

Facebook post

Author. (Year, Month Day). Title [Description of audiovisuals] [Post type]. Facebook. https://xxxxx

Andrews, D. (2018, November 4). Under Labor, there will be no more apartments for ants [Image] [Status update]. Facebook.

Instagram photo

Author name [Instagram handle beginning with @]. (Year, Month Date). "First 20 words of post as title, including a URL, a hashtag, or an emoji as one word [Photograph]. Instagram. https://xxxxx

Holmesglen Institute [@holmesglen]. (2021, February 17). Congratulations to Patrick who won the esteemed Finely Crafted Award (Emerging) at the 2020 Fringe Furniture Awards. His stunning winning [Photograph]. Instagram.

 Gretchen "Gertie" Hirsch [@gertie18]. (2021, February 17). This is such a cute #charmscoutcapelet from @ms.carnivale! This capelet pattern is our latest project on Patreon. You can also [Photograph]. Instagram.

Instagram video

Author name [Instagram handle beginning with @]. (Year, Month Date). "First 20 words of post as title, including a URL, a hashtag, or an emoji as one word [Video]. Instagram. https://xxxxx

Holmesglen Institute [@holmesglen]. (2021, February 17). How to make a face mask. As face masks are now mandatory, you may be wondering how to make one [Video] . Instagram.

Instagram profile

Author name [Instagram handle beginning with @]. (n.d.). Posts [Instagram profile]. Instagram. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from https://xxxxx

Holmesglen Institute [@holmesglen]. (n.d.). Posts [Instagram profile]. Instagram. Retrieved February 17, 2021 from

Instagram highlight

Author name [Instagram handle beginning with @]. (n.d.) Title [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved Month Date, Year, from https://xxxxx

State Library of Victoria [@library_vic]. (n.d.) Library Tour [Highlight]. Instagram. Retrieved February 17, 2021, from

LinkedIn post

Author. (Year, Month Day). Title... [Description of audiovisuals] [Post type]. LinkedIn.

American Psychological Association. (2019, December 9). Last month, APA joined more than 40 national and international psychology organizations...[Thumbnail with link attached] [Post]. LinkedIn.
LinkedIn profile Author. (n.d.). Home [LinkedIn page]. LinkedIn. Retrieved Day Month, Year, from
John Tyler Community College. (n.d.). Home [LinkedIn page]. LinkedIn. Retrieved January 9, 2020, from
Online forum (e.g. Reddit) post

Author. [screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Online forum post]. Name of Website. https://xxxxx

Little, J. [j450n_l]. (2018, December 12). I'm the first person in the world with a neural-enabled prosthetic hand. Using an specialized prosthetic and a device implanted [Online forum post]. Reddit.

Online forum comment

Author. [screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title of comment [Comment on the online forum post Name of post]. Name of website.
Gates, B. [thisisbillgates]. (2017, February 27). Philanthropy is small as a part of the overall economy so it can't do things like fund health care or [Comment on the online forum post I’m Bill Gates, co-chair of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Ask me anything.]. Reddit.

Twitter account


Author. [@twitterhandler] (n.d.). Title 
[Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://xxxxx

APA Style [@APA_Style]. (n.d.). Tweets [Twitter profile]. Twitter. Retrieved January 15, 2020, from


Note: Twitter profiles begin on the “Tweets” tab by default. If you want to cite one of the other tabs (e.g., “Tweets & Replies,” “Media,” “Likes”), use the name of that tab rather than “Tweets” in the title element of the reference.



Author. [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Description of audiovisuals][Tweet]. Twitter. https://xxxxx

APA Databases [@APA_Databases]. (2019, September 5). Help students avoid plagiarism and researchers navigate the publication process. More details available in the 7th edition @APA_Style table [image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

Twitter moment


Author. [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Title [Moment]. Twitter. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from https://xxxxx

DeGeneres, E. [@TheEllenShow]. (2018, March 8). Incredible women on The Ellen Show [Moment]. Twitter. Retrieved January 17, 2020, from


Note: A Twitter moment is a curated set of stories from Twitter. Moments are subject to change and should include a retrieval date.

Apps, games (including computer software)

Well known or common (e.g. Microsoft Office,) does not need to be referenced, but the proper name of the software or app and the version number needs to be provided in the text.

Provide in-text citations and reference list entries for software or apps of limited distribution, or if your audience is likely to be unfamiliar with it.

Games produced by teachers/students should be treated in the same way as as personal communications. As they cannot be retrieved by the reader of your assignment, they are not included in the reference list, but as an in-text citation only.


Reference elements

Screenshot of an annotated mobile app reference

In-text citation

Format Example

(Author, Year)


Author (Year)

... according to the (Australian Bureau of Meteorology [BOM], 2020).


The Australian Bureau of Meteorology [BOM] (2020) highlights temperature changes ...

  • Because the Australian Bureau of Meterorology is known in its abbreviated form, the 2nd citation onwards should be shortened to BOM (2020) or (BOM, 2020). See: in-text citation formats for more information.



Type Format Example

App/Computer software

Author, A. A. (Year last updated).Name of software or app (Version number) [Mobile app or Computer software]. Publisher. https://xxxxx

Australian Bureau of Meteorology. (2020). BOM weather (Version 3.5.0) [Mobile application].

Xero. (2019). Xero practice manager [Computer software].


Author/Developer A. A. (Year last updated).Title [Platform]. Publisher. https://xxxxx

Fox, T. (2015). Undertale [Steam].

Vollmer, A., & Wohlwend, G. (2014). Threes [Mobile iOS]. Sirvo.

  • If the publisher is the same as the author, it may be omitted.

AI tools (including ChatGPT)

AI includes artificial intelligence technologies that can create content, provide advice/ideas or problem solve. It is important to be aware of the limitations and ethical use of these tools – speak to your teacher, learning skills teacher or librarian for more information.

AI tools are to be treated as software and are cited both in-text and in the reference list.

 Only use AI as permitted and in the prescribed manner outlined in your assessment outline. 
You MUST seek permission from your teacher before using any AI tool as part of an assessment. Follow ALL other submission requirements (declaration statement, retain proof of interaction etc.) and ensure you correctly reference it.


Reference elements

Screenshot of an annotated artificial intelligence tool reference

In-text citation




text and information

(AI Creator, Year)


(AI Creator, Year; see Appendix x for the full transcript)

... is defined by this concept (OpenAI, 2023).


... environmental factors (OpenAI, 2023; see Appendix A for the full transcript).

generated images



[AI image]


Image description (AI Creator, Year)


AI image of teddy bear

Rainbow teddy with rose reading book in the Library (OpenAI, 2022)

  • No page number(s) required when quoting AI.
  • If required to provide evidence of prompts used or full transcript, you can note this as part of your in-text citation (once per each AI output). Use the phrase see Appendix x for the full transcript after the year and separated by a semicolon. E.g. (Singtel Optus, 2023; see Appendix B for the full transcript).



Format Example

AI Creator. (Year). AI name (Month Day version or Version x.x) [Description]. https://xxxxxx

OpenAI. (2022). DALL-E (Version 2) [Multimodal large visual model].

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (May 24 version) [Multimodal large language model].

Singtel Optus. (2023). Optus assistant [Chatbot].

  • Year is AI's version year of creation.
  • Version number is included if available and formatted according to software's numbering system (e.g. May 24 version, Version 2, Version 3.4 etc.).
  • Description is software type/model such as [Multimodal large language model], [Large language model], [Multimodal large visual model], [Chatbot] etc. If unsure, use the description [Artificial intelligence tool].
  • URL is tool landing page.