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APA 7th Referencing

American Psychological Association, 7th edition

Audiovisual media overview

In this section:


The reference information can often be found on:

  • The cover of the DVD case
  • The IMDb page (which includes film and television series information)
  • The website on which the podcast/streaming video is located

Each reference may include the following elements:

  • Author(s)/creator(s)/director(s)/producer(s)/writer(s)
  • Date/Year of production
  • Format/Description of material
  • Distributor/Publisher
  • Web address (URL)

Quoting or paraphrasing from audiovisual sources:

  • Check the exact time that the quote starts and use the time stamp in place of a page number, e.g. (Smith, 2012, 1:35:22). The 1:35:22 refers to 1 hour 35 minutes 22 seconds into the film/video.
  • Hours/minutes/seconds follows the pattern H:MM:SS Minutes/seconds follows the pattern MM:SS
  • Where you are only using seconds (e.g. for a short clip), use a zero at the front, e.g. 0:39 for 39 seconds.

Determining authorship

Audiovisual material is defined by APA as having both audio and visual components. The author is determined by the type of media you are citing.

Media type Include as the author
Film Director
TV series Executive producer(s)
TV series episode Writer and director of episode
Podcast Host or executive producer(s)
Podcast episode Host of episode
Webinar Instructor
Online streaming video Person or group who uploaded the video