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Holmesglen Harvard Referencing Guide

Unpublished works overview

Unpublished works are any resources not accessible via published sources and, therefore, not retrievable by the reader.

Personal communications: These may include unrecorded lectures, personal letters, conversations, interviews, and email messages.

Lecture/class materials and resources: These may include PowerPoint slides, Word documents, PDFs, audio files etc. relating to lectures, classes, seminars and workshops.

*Please check with your teacher whether these are considered an acceptable source to cite or not.

Unpublished works format

Personal communications

Personal communications are cited in-text only. They are not included in the reference list.

 

In-text citation

  Format Example
Paraphrase

AA Person (Year, pers. comm., Day Month)

M Harrison (2015, pers. comm., 11 December) supports this view by detailing how ...

Quote

AA Person (Year, pers. comm., Day Month)

During the interview, M Harrison (2015, pers. comm., 11 December) described the movement as 'incredibly volatile and emotionally charged'.
Note:
  • Give an exact date if possible.

Lecture/Class notes, materials and resources on Brightspace

Lecture/class notes, materials and resources are cited in-text only. They are not included in the reference list.

Not all departments accept these as reference sources. Please check with your teacher whether you are allowed to use them or not.

 

In-text citation

  Format Example
Paraphrase

(Teacher/Lecturer Year, Unit# resource # type)

OR

Teacher/Lecturer (Year, Unit# resource # type) 

... is explained by drawing upon several key topics (Smith 2015, LNG254 lecture 4 slides).

OR

Smith (2015, LNG254 lecture 4 slides) draws on several key topics to explain ... 

Quote

'...' (Teacher/Lecturer Year, Unit# resource # type, sl. / p. xx)

OR


Teacher/Lecturer (Year, Unit# resource # type, sl. / p. xx) '...'

'Language is very much open to interpretation and defined by our experiences' (Smith 2015, LNG254 lecture 4 slides, sl. 2).

 

OR

Smith (2015, LNG254 lecture 4 slides, sl. 2) explains in his lecture on 'Emotive conversing realities'  'language is very much open to interpretation and defined by our experiences'.

Note:
  • If slide/page number is unknown or  unavailable, do not include.