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Holmesglen Harvard Referencing Guide

Reference lists/bibliographies

What's the difference?

Reference list: A list of resources that you have cited in the assignment.

Bibliography: A list of resources that you have read, both cited and not cited, in your assignment.


Not sure which one to use? Please consult with your teacher or refer to your assignment outline.

For information on how to specifically reference a source, refer to the appropriate source type tabs in this guide.

Reference list formats


Armstrong, G 2017, Principles of marketing, 7th edn, Pearson Australia, Frenchs Forest, NSW.

Autio, N n.d., 'Bright', photography, in N Autio et al., '10x100', T & G Publishing, Sydney, p. 14.

Berman, A et al. 2018, Kozier and Erb's fundamentals of nursing, 4th Australian edn, Pearson Australia, Frenchs Forest, NSW.

Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation 2006, Australian soil and land survey field handbook, CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, VIC.

Cutilli, CC & Bennett, IM 2009, 'Understanding the health literacy of America: results of the national assessment of adult literacy', Orthopaedic Nursing, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 27-32, viewed 21 June 2019, EBSCO database. 

Fernández-Castillo, R-J, Gil-García, E, Vázquez-Santiago, M-S & Barrientos-Trigo, S 2020, 'Chronic non-cancer pain management by nurses in specialist pain clinics', British Journal of Nursing, vol. 29, no. 16, pp. 954-959, ProQuest database.

Giordano Homes 2021, Three bedroom townhouse [unpublished building plan], Giordano Homes, Brighton.

Hassanien, A, Clarke, A & Dale, C 2010, Hospitality business development, viewed 21 June 2019, EBSCO Ebook database. 

How to grow a lemon tree 2012, online video, post 13 Jan, created by gregthegardener, viewed 14 August 2015,

Jiro dreams of sushi 2012, DVD, Gryphon Entertainment, Australia. Directed by David Gelb.

Lin, R 2015, Hotels and resorts in Australia, Industry Report H4401, viewed 17 February 2015, IBISWorld Australia.

McCubbin, J 2015, 'Police look to the future to stop crime', Police Life, Spring, 21 May, pp. 22-23.

Melissen, F, van der Rest, JP, Josephi, S & Blomme, R (eds) 2014, Hospitality experience: an introduction to hospitality management, Noordhoff Uitgevers, The Netherlands.

Nurse and Midwife Support 2017a, Helping your employees and students, viewed 7 June 2019,

Nurse and Midwife Support 2017b, Support and your professional obligations, viewed 8 June 2019,

Reyes, SD & Ebbeck, M 2010, 'Children redefine learning in science through play', in M Ebbeck & M Waniganayake (eds), Play in early childhood education: learning in diverse contexts, Oxford University Press, South Melbourne, VIC, pp.  197-211.

Robbins, S, Judge, T, Edwards, M, Saniford, P, Fitzgerald, M & Hunt J 2020, Organisational behaviour, 9th edn, Pearson, Melbourne, VIC.

Roper, K & Borello, L 2013, International facility management, Wiley, viewed 29 October 2014, ProQuest EBook Central database.

Safe Work Australia May 2018, Construction work: code of practice, ethical guidelines, viewed 7 June 2019,

Sarat, A, Brown, M, Ewick, P, Garvey, S, Katz, L, Smith, C & Steiker, C 2014, The punitive imagination: law, justice and responsibility, 2nd edn, viewed 21 June 2019, ProQuest EBook Central database. 

Standards Australia 2013, Fixed platforms, walkways, stairways and ladders- design, construction and installation, AS 1657-2013, viewed 14 August 2014, SAI Global database.

Wilkinson, J 2014, 'Hoteliers confident at NYU conference', HM The Business of Accommodation, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 32-3.

General features and format

  • Place reference list at the end of assignment on a separate page.
  • Reference list must have the title "References" at the top of page. This must be formatted as bold text and left aligned.

  • All sources cited must be included in the reference list with the exception of unpublished works (resources not accessible via published sources, e.g. letters, interviews etc.).

  • Arrange list alphabetically according to author surname.
  • Where multiple references have same author but different year, order them oldest to newest.
    Bridgeman, T 2019, Research as skills for life, 3rd edn, Munchkin Books, Oxford, UK.  
    Bridgeman, T 2020,  Research skills for study, Holman Publishing, Oxford, UK.
  • Where multiple references have same author and year, order them alphabetically according to title and add a letter to differentiate them.
    Bridgeman, T 2019a, Importance of research: Skills for success , Holman Publishing, Oxford, UK.
    Bridgeman, T 2019b, Research as skills for life, 3rd edn, Munchkin Books, Oxford, UK.  
  • The first letter of the first word of a sub heading after a colon is not capitalised.
    e.g. Contemporary strategic management: concepts and cases
  • Book titles are generally italicised and have minimal capitalisation. Periodical titles (e.g. journals, magazines and newspapers) have maximum capitalisation. e.g. Book title is Principles of marketing, whereas periodical title is Police Life

  • Authors are listed in the order that they are given in the resource.

  • If there is no author, use the title instead. If the title begins with an article (the, a, an), skip it and order using the word after it. e.g. The Economist is ordered by E using Economist, but still written as The Economist.

  • URLs for online sources are formatted as normal text and are not hyperlinked.
    e.g. Safe Work Australia May 2018, Construction work: Code of practice, ethical guidelines, viewed 7 June 2019,


Author formats/requirements

1-7 authors/editors

All authors/editors are listed.

Author, AA, Author, BB, Author, CC, Author, DD, Author, EE, Author, FF & Author, GG

Editor, AA, Editor, BB, Editor, CC, Editor, DD, Editor, EE, Editor, FF & Editor, GG (Eds.).

8 or more authors/editors

List first author followed by et al.

Author, AA et al.

Editor, AA et al.

Organisation/Corporate author

Organisation's name must be written out in full.

e.g. CSIRO is written as Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation.

Hyphenated names

Authors/Editors with a hyphenated first name should have a hyphen added in between their initials with no space.

Author, A-A

Capitalisation and spelling

Use exact capitalisation and spelling of author names as they appear in the source. This includes accented letters and characters, hyphens and lower case spelling.

e.g. van der Waal, PN, Santos-García, S & Velasco Rodríguez, ML



Harvard style uses specific punctuation, capitalisation, abbreviations and formatting rules. Explanation of punctuation is included throughout this guide. This includes formatting quotes, citations and references. It is important that you are consistent and accurate with punctuation to ensure you reference correctly.  


Common abbreviations

Terms commonly used in references are shortened. Some are also used for date and page information for in-text citations.

c. circa
& and
edn edition
2nd edn second edition
rev. edn revised edition
(ed.)/(eds) editor/editors
(trans.) translator(s)
et al. and others
n.d. no date
n.p. no place of publication
p./pp. page/pages
ch. chapter
para. paragraph
tech. technical report
vol./vols volume/volumes
no. number
iss. issue


Additional title notations

Additional title information can be included after the title (separated by a comma) if the information will assist in identification and retrieval of the work. Do not capitalise the first letter. Below are some examples:

letter to the editor
audio podcast
motion picture
lecture notes
video webcast

Further information on reference lists