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Holmesglen Harvard Referencing Guide

Dictionaries and encyclopedias format

Entry with no author

Same format applies to all reference works including dictionaries, thesauruses, encyclopedias and atlases.

 

In-text citation

  Format Example
Paraphrase

(Dictionary/Encyclopedia Year)

OR

Dictionary/Encyclopedia (Year)

... is described as a type of political system (Cambridge dictionary 2018).

OR

Dirr's encyclopedia of trees and shrubs (2011) classifies it ...

Quote

(Dictionary/Encyclopedia Year, p. xx)

OR

Dictionary/Encyclopedia (Year, p. xx) '...'

'Cycas revoluta is vital to the Earth's ecosystem ... ' (Dirr's encyclopedia of trees and shrubs 2011, pp. 254-255).

OR

Cambridge dictionary (2018, p. 132) defines constitution as 'a set of political principles by which a state or organization is governed'.

Note:
  • Page number is not required for HTML (webpage) sources.

 

Reference

Cite in-text only. Do not include in reference list. 

Entry with author

Same format applies to all reference works including dictionaries, thesauruses, encyclopedias and atlases.

 

Reference elements

annotated reference example for an encyclopedia entry with an author

 

In-text citation

  Format Examples
Paraphrase

(Author Year)

OR

Author (Year)

... is necessary for Earth's survival (Mann & Selin 2018).

OR

Mann and Selin (2018) describe global warming as ...

Quote

(Author Year)

OR

Author (Year)

'Global warming is a phenomenon not to be ignored' (Mann & Selin 2018).

OR

Mann and Selin (2018) explain global warming as 'a phenomenon not to be ignored.'

Note:

  • Page number is not required for HTML (webpage) sources. 

 

Reference

Format Example

Author, AA Year, 'Title of entry', Title of work, viewed Day Month Year, http://xxxxx.

Mann, ME & Selin, H 2018, 'Global warming', Encyclopedia Britannica, viewed 25 June 2019, https://www.britannica.com.

Note:
  • URL is dictionary/encyclopedia homepage.