Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Holmesglen Harvard Referencing Guide

Conventions and treaties format


A treaty is an agreement made under international law, between nations or international organisations. They are similar to contracts, in that parties make an agreement and if they do not live up to that agreement they can be held liable. A treaty can also be known as an international agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact or exchange of letters. 


Reference elements 

annotated reference example for a convention or treaty


In-text citation

  Format Example

(Title Year)


Title Year

... children have the right to an education (Convention on the Rights of the Child 1990).


According to the Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 1954 ...


'...' (Title Year, art. xx)


Title Year, art. xx '...'

'... rights of the child ...' (Convention on the Rights of the Child 1990, art. 12).


The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees 1954, art. 32 states '...'.

  • Use articles to refer to particular parts of an treaty. Article is abbreviated to art. 
  • The year is treated as part of the title so does not need to be in brackets.



Format Example

Treaty title Year.

Convention on the Rights of the Child 1990.